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 Information for Authors


References in keeping with the Harvard referencing style for  SGH Publishing House (Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH): Kwartalnik Studia z Polityki Publicznej (The Quarterly Journal of Public Policy Studies)

Introductory guidelines for the authors

They are referred to as the so-called alphabetical references or 'author-date' references to literature.

- they refer to a given source directly in the body of the text, without giving its full bibliographic description at the bottom of the page,

- full and detailed bibliographic descriptions of the sources are placed  in the reference list at the end of the paper,

- references are placed immediately after the citation or any other place requiring sources to be indicated in the form of a shortened bibliographic information contained in parentheses and including the following: the last name of the author (or co-authors) or abbreviation of the source title (in the case of collective works without the editor), year of publishing or/and the page numer(s) the author is referring to, for example: Despite the government's optimism, it seems that support for the government reform is systematically decreasing (Kowalski, 1999).

- the method of entering bibliographic data in the reference depends on the context: if it is clear from the sentence /paragraph after which the reference should be placed whose work is being referred to (and the author's name appears in the text), it is sufficient to limit the reference to the year of publication and /or page number, e.g. According to Becker (1990), in economic theory, rationality is important for the entire market, not for individual households. The Winston model (1990) also does not explain when and why short-term preferences appear.

Referencing guide:


1. The reference should contain the following information: author's last name, year of publication, page number/numbers.

2. Authors of the publication - if a given publication has two authors, both names are provided, combined with the conjunction 'and', e.g. (Kowalski and Nowak, 1994).

- the same rule applies in the case of three authors, where the conjunction 'and' is stated before the last name, e.g. (Malinowski, Kowalski and Nowak, 1971)

- if there are more than three authors, only the last name of the first author is stated, followed by the abbreviation 'et al.' (Smith et al., 2003)

- if several sources used in the paper have authors with the same last name and the same year of publication, then they are distinguished by placing the initials of the authors' first names, e.g. (Nowak A., 2003; Nowak W., 2003)

- when we refer to multiple publications by the same author released in the same year, the works are allocated a lowercase letter after the year (without spaces), e.g. (Nowak 1991a, 1991b, 1991c). This allocation is done also in the references after the main text

- if a direct quote is made from another author's work, it should be clearly marked with quotation marks and italics, in which case one should also indicate the page number from which the quoted text comes, e.g. (...) even very impulsive buyers do not buy 'on every whim (Rook and Fisher, 1995 p.306)

- the page number can also be indicated if no direct quote is made, but the original author's thought is paraphrased; however, it is not necessary

- if the author of the paper refers to a source that they have not read, but which was cited in another publication which the author has read, then the reference contains only the author whose publication was accessed, not the original author. One should present this fact as follows: According to Shapiro (quoted in: Bellenger, Robertson and Hirschman, 1978 p.15) 'there is no such thing as a group of impulsive products, because virtually each and every thing may at some point become the subject of impulsive purchase for a specific consumer'.

-for several publications cited together (in one bracket) the rule of chornological order applies, e.g. (Nowak, 1973; Malinowski, 1980; Kowalski, 1999). However, when there is a need to refer to a source by several authors from different years, in order to avoid repeating the same last name in the parentheses, the works are stated chronologically within individual authors, e.g. (Nowak, 1973, 1992, 200; Kowalski, 1978, 1999; Malinowski, 1980)

- if we refer to studies and reports prepared by organizations, institutions etc. which do not have authors (or editors), then the names of these organizations are given instead of the author, e.g.(Central Statistical Office, 2009) or (CSO, 2009)


3. Punctuation - the following rules of punctuation should be applied:

- references to the publications are placed in parantheses, e.g. (1984)