Spis treści ZN 27
- Wpływ „rozproszenia” marketingu na jego tożsamość
- Przeszłość i przyszłość marketingu
- Od marketingu eksportowego do marketingu wirtualnego i neomarketingu
Elżbieta Duliniec, Andrzej Sznajder
- Ewolucja koncepcji marketingu – marketing między ekonomią zarządzaniem
Teresa M. Dudzik
- Komunikacja nieformalna w marketingu a zakaz reklamy ukrytej
- System informacji marketingowej a tendencje zmian we współczesnym marketingu
- Zachowania nabywców na rynku – trendy i wpływ na działanie przedsiębiorstw
- Rozwój Internetu a segmentacja nabywców i pozycjonowanie oferty przedsiębiorstwa
- Tendencje zmian w makrootoczeniu – perspektywa polskich przedsiębiorstw
- Cykl życia marki na rynku
Marzanna K. Witek-Hajduk
- Kooperacja a sprawność marketingowa przedsiębiorstw na przykładzie polskich
przedsiębiorstw przemysłu elektromaszynowego
Tomasz Gołębiowski, Małgorzata Lewandowska
- Europejski Fundusz Dostosowania do Globalizacji – przyczyny powstania,
funkcjonowanie, efekty i perspektywy
- Działalność agencji ratingowych a kryzys subprime
Zeszyty Naukowe KGS No. 27
- On How the Dispersion of Marketing Influences Its Identity
- Marketing. Past and Future
- From Export Marketing to Virtual Marketing and Neomarketing
Elżbieta Duliniec, Andrzej Sznajder
- The Evolution of a Concept – Marketing between the Economics and Management
Teresa M. Dudzik
- Word of Mouth Marketingand the Ban on Hidden Advertising
- The Marketing Information System and the Current Changes in Marketing
- Trends in Consumer Behaviour and it’s Consequences for Business
- Influence of Internet Development on Customer Segmentation and Company Positioning
- Tendencies of Changes in the Macroenvironment – the Perspective of Polish Enterprises
- The Brand Life Cycle in the Market
- Interfirm Collaboration and Firms' Marketing Performance. A Study on the Polish Engineering Sector
Tomasz Gołębiowski, Małgorzata Lewandowska
- European Globalisation Adjustment Fund – Reasons for its Establishment, Activities, Effects and Perspectives
- Rating Agencies and the Subprime Crisis
On How the Dispersion of Marketing Influences Its Identity
The term marketing has been developing in the economic theory and practice for a century now. And there we are, facing its many definitions. Some of them are a result of efforts undertaken by professional organisations like the American Marketing Association; the other have been proposed by individual authors. Differences among those definitions are usually substantial. Over recent decades we can also observe how the term ‘marketing’ is applied to different marketing fields of activity like for instance ‘direct marketing’, ‘network marketing’, ‘partnership marketing’, etc. The purpose of the paper is to examine and answer the question to what extent such dispersion of marketing influences its identity.
Marketing. Past and Future
Marketing has been practiced since ancient times. We can trace marketing thought in the works of ancient philosophers. But the history of marketing as an academic discipline is only hundred years long. Throughout the XX century many concepts and ideas had been put forward by academics. They coalesced into several schools of marketing thought. The traditional approach to study marketing was focused on marketing functions, marketing institutions (trading firms) and moving commodities from sources of supply to places of demand. The three schools of marketing thought can be identified at this early stage of developing the discipline. The so called paradigm shift, which started in the late fifties of the XX century resulted from the after the II World War supply surpluses in the American economy, and consequently the business entities needing to generate the necessary demand. New modern marketing schools emerged such as marketing systems school, marketing management school, exchange school, consumer behaviour school, macromarketing school. In the mid seventies of XX century researches from outside the discipline entered marketing. This was a consequence of broadening paradigm and expanding the discipline boundaries. From now on, all forms of social exchanges had been considered an occasion to implement marketing concepts. This however worried some academics, who argued that marketing should be restricted only to the buyer-seller exchanges. The recently witnessed turbulence in the business environment (including technological advances) had a significant impact on the marketing practice and theory. Among others, the concepts of ‘value creation’ and ‘value chain’ had been introduced. In the eighties and nineties the areas of services marketing and relationship marketing received an increased attention. The marketing-mix paradigm was found by many authors inadequate to incorporate the theoretical shift of co-creating customer experience. The new role of marketing in an organisation was proposed, as well. Now, at the outskirts of the new millennium many representatives of the marketing community engage in the discussion on a new paradigm suggesting a shift from the goods-centred to the service-centred approach.
Elżbieta Duliniec, Andrzej Sznajder
From Export Marketing to Virtual Marketing and Neomarketing
As an area of knowledge and skills as well as research and teaching discipline, marketing has been developing in Poland for more than thirty years now. At the beginning, it was mainly the domain of exporting enterprises since they had to compete with their business rivals in the competitive environment of foreign markets.
The systemic transformation made the marketing orientation necessary for all enterprises, especially as many of them began to internationalise. An expansion in the scope of marketing activities took place. Not only manufacturers of material products in diverse industries (both B2C and B2B) had been using the marketing concept. The service providers introduced it into their activities, too. Lower and lower governmental financing in many areas brought about the necessity to use the marketing concepts in culture, sports and education. Political marketing as well as services marketing emerged as an important research and teaching discipline. New marketing research methods have been introduced to better learn buyers’ needs and to adapt marketing activities to those needs more efficiently.
Introduction of new technologies, particularly the Internet and mobile telecommunications, had a huge impact on the development of marketing. New information technologies made it possible for companies to reach more precisely their target markets and ensure interaction with present and potential customers. The latter was essential for both marketing and the communication with all business partners.
Neomarketing has been emerging defined as the new marketing philosophy that encapsulates a clear customer centricity, integrated management and an information technology focus. Therefore, the thirty years of marketing in Poland may be described as an evolution from export marketing to virtual marketing and neomarketing.
The Evolution of a Concept – Marketing between the Economics and Management
The expansion of marketing beyond the traditional economy in such fields as politics, culture, sports, as well as the governmental and municipal administration arises questions on the virtue of marketing. When asking about the virtue of marketing we wish simultaneously to anchor the marketing knowledge either in the economics or in the management theory. Having accepted that an enterprise is the link between economics and management we assume for the purpose of this paper that the main source of trouble with the identity of marketing is its limitation to the narrow function of an enterprise. But, it is marketing that constitutes the virtue of an enterprise and the entrepreneurship.
Independently on the academic stance of the theoretical marketing knowledge, it changes as all social sciences do, including economics and management. The paper points to the diminishing boundaries between research fields of marketing, heterodox economics and corporate management.
The author believes that the virtue of marketing is its ability to create the customer and points to the changes in the approach to marketing that are signalised by the latest definition put forward by the American Marketing Association. The conclusion is that the basic paradigm does not change. The concept of the customer changes however – it expands to embrace all stakeholders of an enterprise. Creation of the value offer addressed to customers in the environment that gets more and more competitive requires the engagement of not solely all employees, but more often the participants of the entire network that creates the value. It is necessary to elaborate the new marketing toolkit, as well.
Marketing as a discipline of knowledge may see its chances – as hitherto – in both economics and management. The third possible way is the entrepreneurship.
Word of Mouth Marketingand the Ban on Hidden Advertising
The paper deals with the so called word of mouth marketing (WOMM), which is an increasingly popular advertising strategy, used among others at the Internet chat rooms. The research provides a legal appraisal of WOMM in light of legal acts and the soft law.
Unprecedented progress of electronic communications contributes to the success of word of mouth marketing, which differs from other forms of advertising mainly due to its hidden nature. This occurs despite the legal obligation imposed by the EU legal acts and the soft law to make the commercial statements recognisable for the recipients. However, as the research results show the situation may improve, should the recommendations adopted in the United States with regard to word of mouth marketing gain ever broader acceptance in the marketing code of conducts.
The Marketing Information System and the Current Changes in Marketing
The paper examines the influence of changes in modern marketing theory on the concept and functions of marketing information systems (MIS). The increasing number of target groups, at which marketing activity is directed means that MIS should gather information from new sources and then support the development of product offers taking into account the well-being of the society and environment. Secondly, vast amounts of information must be managed with help of new information technology tools, such as data mining, which is nowadays becoming more and more popular. Furthermore, the emphasis on marketing effectiveness makes the control functions of MIS more important.
The second part of the paper examines new marketing tools based on the IT support particularly the customer relationship management (CRM) systems and their role in the marketing strategy development. Next, the changing role of marketing researchers, who now assume the role of consultants, instead of just gathering the primary market information, has been outlined. Finally, the new applications of the Internet as an environmental scanning tool have been described, including examples of the web mining software.
Trends in Consumer Behaviour and it’s Consequences for Business
Consumer decisions are shaped by both environmental and individual factors. All the factors may be divided into four groups: cultural, social, personal and psychological. When analysing changes in all these areas several trends in consumer behaviour may be identified. The present-day consumers tend to be better informed, involved, pragmatic and ecology oriented. These factors should be considered in marketing plans by companies that want to build a strong and stable position in the market.
Influence of Internet Development on Customer Segmentation and Company Positioning
Changing conditions of business activities impose some limitations and difficulties when applying the STP (Segmenting, Targeting, Positioning) concept. It does not, however, change the fact that this concept is still valid. Particular changes in buyers’ behaviour have been caused by the internet development, which took place over recent years. This paper is dedicated to new possibilities and threats created by the Internet that relate to the segmentation and company (brand) positioning. The author discusses the cases, in which being an internet user should be one of the segmentation criteria. The possibilities to obtain information about internet users and various segmentations of internet users have been scrutinised as well. Further, the possible ways of using the Internet for company positioning and the threats for the company image related to the Internet have been examined. The other discussed topic has been the relevance of company positioning and the positioning of Web sites.
Tendencies of Changes in the Macroenvironment – the Perspective of Polish Enterprises
The present paper focuses on the issues of macroenvironment seen through the corporate perspective. The author examines in particular the consequences of the Poland’s accession to the European Union, the globalisation effects as well as the consequences of the financial and economic crisis for the Polish enterprises. The paper is based on the classical split of the macroenvironment into the economic, socio-cultural, demographic, administrative, legal, political, technological and natural environment. The theoretical discussion has been illustrated by the latest statistical data as well as examples from the business practice.
The Brand Life Cycle in the Market
Branding has emerged as a management priority in the last decades. Brands are among the most valuable intangible corporate assets and a source of a competitive advantage for companies. The aim of this paper is to present the brand life cycle concept and identify marketing techniques that help building strong brands during the consecutive stages of the brand life cycle. The next objective is to present some brand reinforcing and revitalisation techniques such as brand positioning and repositioning, brand extension, brand launching in the new markets, logo revitalisation, ensuring innovation of product design, ensuring relevance in user and usage imagery, expanding the depth and/or breadth of brand awareness and improving the uniqueness of brand associations making up the brand image, etc.
Tomasz Gołębiowski, Małgorzata Lewandowska
Interfirm Collaboration and Firms' Marketing Performance. A Study on the Polish Engineering Sector
The paper focuses on interfirm collaboration and its contribution to value for customers in the value creating, value offering and communicating as well as value delivering process. The aim of the paper is to identify differences in collaborative behaviour of major industries of the Polish engineering sector, including electronic industry, electrical appliances industry, machine/installation-building industry and automotive industry. The study was made on sample of 155 firms.
The motives for collaboration, its scope and sustainability in R&D processes, manufacturing, marketing and logistics have been discussed. Further, major barriers and problems arising from interfirm collaboration, and impact of recent global financial crisis on the interfirm relations have been analysed.
European Globalisation Adjustment Fund – Reasons for its Establishment, Activities, Effects and Perspectives
Established by the end of 2006 and active from the beginning of 2007 the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF) has been a result of a political decision that aimed at convincing the Europeans and in particular the citizens of the former EU-15 that the globalisation did not constitute any danger to the European social model. It is simultaneously an expression of a tendency to establish sectoral financial instruments apart from those already existent in the original EU law (for example the European Social Fund). The practically unknown, without any separate budgetary line, with only a budget margin not higher than EUR 500 million annually, EGF was barely tapped during the first two years of its existence. Yet, some changes made in the mid 2009 like extension of its scope to support people laid off due to the economic crisis resulted in an increased interest by the EU member states.
EGF is a financial instrument that is tapped not only by the rich and big countries, but also by the smaller and relatively poorer countries like Lithuania, Malta and recently also Bulgaria. Its contribution that increased from 50 to 65 percent of global costs, allows the member states using its financial support to bankroll more expensive and thus presumably more effective tools to support unemployed people. The outplacement programs financed hitherto are quite effective – out of three people granted the support two found a permanent job or established an own business.
The future of EFG will be probably decided on during the Polish EU Presidency in the second half of 2011. Therefore, it seems worthwhile that Poland formulates its own opinion on the effectiveness and flexibility of this Fund, and during the Presidency seeks a common EU compromise in line with the Polish national interest.
Rating Agencies and the Subprime Crisis
The author examines the activities of rating agencies through the perspective of the crisis in the subprime markets as well as changes in laws regulating that kind of activity. Although the new legislative solutions regulating the activities of rating agencies had been implemented (in particular reforms increasing their operational transparency, limiting the conflict-of-interest risk and introducing new requirements as to the assessment methodology of structuralised financial instruments), some operations by entities that offer credit rating services still require further regulations. In particular, the following fields of activity require new legal solutions:
the present model of financing the rating agencies, which stipulates that the issuer pays for the rating assigned to its financial instruments
the oligopoly competitive model of rating services that is dominated by three major agencies
the prudential norms that are based solely on the credit rating
The first part of the paper focuses on the role played by the rating agencies in the international financial system. Their role has been examined from the micro perspective (from the issuers’ and investors’ point of view), as well as from the macro perspective – from the point of view of countries as well as public institutions and international organisations that set up norms based on ratings, what in turn influences the stability of the financial system.
The second part of the paper has been devoted to imperfections in rating agencies’ operational activity that came into light after bankruptcies of major transnational corporations, and the crisis in the subprime markets (and earlier crises). In view of the latest global breakdown in the financial markets the imperfections concern mainly ratings assigned to structuralised financial instruments.
The third part of the paper is a review of the new and earlier applied legislative solutions in force in the European Union and the United States regarding the rating agencies’ activities as well as an examination of operations that still require legal regulations.