Spis treści ZN 28
- Nowe państwa członkowskie Unii Europejskiej a światowy kryzys gospodarczy
- Umowy o referencjach handlowych – bariera czy uzupełnienie globalnej liberalizacji handlu międzynarodowego?
Elżbieta Czarny, Jerzy Menkes, Katarzyna Śledziewska
- Teoria zależności od ścieżki a małe gospodarki wyspiarskie
- Luka zasobowa w procesie tworzenia innowacji
- Ideał ekonomii wolnej od sądów wartościujących
- Europejskie dobra publiczne – nowa koncepcja reformy budżetu Unii Europejskiej?
- Rynek usług wspomagających racjonalizację wykorzystania energii
Materiały i opracowania
- Open innovation practice – a case of General Mills
Finn Høy Houengaard
- O książce Douglassa C. North’a: Understanding the Process of Economic Change
Z życia naukowego Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej
- Zmiany międzynarodowej polityki handlowej – perspektywa przedsiębiorstw Unii Europejskiej – informacja o seminarium
- Co dalej z OFE? – informacja o konferencji
- Polska w handlu międzynarodowym – informacja o konferencji jubileuszowej z okazji 70. urodzin Profesora Pawła Bożyka
- Zmiany kursu walutowego a dynamika wzrostu gospodarczego w Polsce w okresie 1997-2009
- Usługi spedycyjne w prawie niemieckim jako przykład tworzenia relacji partnerskich przy przewozach międzynarodowych
Zeszyty Naukowe KGS No. 28
- New EU Member States and the World Economic Crisis
- Regional Trade Agreements – a Barrier or a Supplement of the Global Trade Liberalisation
Elżbieta Czarny, Jerzy Menkes, Katarzyna Śledziewska
- Path Dependence and Small Island Developing States
- Resource Gap in the Process of Innovation Creation
- The Ideal of Value Free Economics
- European Public Goods – a New Concept to Reform the EU Budget?
- The Market for Energy Efficiency Services
Materials and Papers
- Open Innovation Practice – a case of General Mills
Finn Høy Houengaard
- Douglass C. North: Understanding the Process of Economic Change – Book Review
From the Collegium of World Economy
- Changes in the International Trade Policy – the Perspective of EU Companies – information on the seminar
- The Perspectives of Open Pension Funds (OFE)? – information on the conference
- Poland in the International Trade – information on the conference to celebrate Prof. Paweł Bożyk 70th birthday
- Changes in the Exchange Rate and the Growth Rate in Poland in 1997-2009
- Forwarding Services in German Law and the Partnerships in the International Carriage
New EU Member States and the World Economic Crisis
The 2008-2009 world economic crisis was particularly tough for the new EU member states (NMS). In the period of crisis, the GDP slump in those countries was generally deeper than in the remaining EU countries. Simultaneously, the nature of the crisis varied strongly among them. The group embraces both countries with the strongest output decrease (Baltic states) and the only country in the EU that escaped recession at all (Poland). The aim of the article is to explain factors that led to the recession on a larger scale in the new member states as well as factors that made the crisis pathway differ among them. The starting point is identification of two main channels, by means of which the crisis transmitted on the international scale – the trade integration channel as well as financial integration channel. The dependencies between GDP changes on the one side, and on the other, changes in exports, domestic lending, balance on the current account and balance of the public finance had been scrutinised in particular. The analysis shows that the recession in the NMS was caused by the decrease in both export and domestic demand. The decrease in the latter played a decisive role in some of the countries. It resulted mainly from the decrease in the domestic lending caused in turn by lower credit supply due to the halted inflow of foreign capital into the domestic banking sector as well as by lower demand for loans due to a quick debt increase and higher uncertainty as to the further growth perspectives. In countries, that – prior to crisis – had been developing at a high pace based on quick increase in the domestic lending financed by the inflow of foreign capital, a strong internal and external imbalance (deficit on current account) emerged. Effectively, the output breakdown was stronger in those countries. Contrary, in countries that avoided excessive lending and a high deficit on current account, the output decrease was limited. The other factors mitigating the crisis were the floating exchange rate and a high share of the public sector in the national economy.
Elżbieta Czarny, Jerzy Menkes, Katarzyna Śledziewska
Regional Trade Agreements – a Barrier or a Supplement of the Global Trade Liberalisation
After the GATT Uruguay Round the multilateral trade liberalisation has been stopped. Simultaneously, trade liberalisation continues within the institutional framework of regional preferential trade agreements being a kind of discriminatory trade liberalisation. Regional agreements allow namely granting trade preferences to the member countries and discriminating (in form of lacking preferences) countries and international governmental organisations out of area. However, more frequent participation in regional agreements makes this type of trade liberalisation a feasible alternative for multilateral negotiations under auspices of WTO.
The authors examine the influence of regional agreements on trade within the areas covered by those agreements and in trade of member countries with the rest of the world. They check, whether trade within the regionally integrated areas is crowding out trade with the rest of the world. Finally, the authors supplement this analysis with considerations on global and regional economic cooperation and on the genesis and legal base of discriminatory trade liberalisation.
Path Dependence and Small Island Developing States
Such global tendencies as decolonisation and the spread of international tourism have undoubtedly left some imprints on small island developing states (SIDS) in the past fifty years. The idea to base the economic development on the tourism industry seemed for some newly independent island states to be the only possibility of international economic exchange. In the light of dependence theories, international division of labour pushed them to further specialisation in tourism. Although they are aware of threats resulting from this specialisation, more and more SIDS have been entering the international tourism market since mid seventies of the 20th century.
The aim of the article is hardly to present the overall picture of island economies and the role of tourism in these economies, as this would be impossible within the formal limits of the paper. Therefore, the focus is only on demonstrating how the concept of path dependence may be applied in island economy research and how it can be correlated with the already existing models of SIDS economic development: MIRAB, SITE and PROFIT. The application of the path dependence concept will show the models in dynamic perspective. The study presented in the article is an introduction to further research devoted to a wider issue of tourist colonisation as an element of SIDS economic development.
Resource Gap in the Process of Innovation Creation
The author examines the process of innovation creation in business entities. Special emphasis is put on the early-stage technology development that allows to gradually transform invention into innovation. In the further part of the article, three kinds of uncertainty concerning the corporate innovation processes are discussed. Then the author identifies, in his opinion, the key threat in R&D projects, i.e. the resource gap. The causes of resource gap are then thoroughly discussed and explained using both the appropriate psychological theory and the game-theoretic approach. Finally, the potential managerial and economic consequences of the resource gap are shown.
The Ideal of Value Free Economics
In the article, the author examines views of the most important participants in debates on the nature of positive and normative economics, and their relations. Views of N. Senior, J.S. Mill, J.E. Cairnes, J.M. Keynes, M. Weber, L. Robbins and M. Friedman are described. Firstly, they are of the opinion that descriptive statements differ logically from value judgements, only the former can be true or false. Secondly, proposals put forward by economists should be free of value judgements. Such ideal of economics carries out many functions: it protects against dogmatism and against insolvable and time-consuming arguments; it prevents economists from using authority of science to justify for instance the political goals. An opinion is also put forward that this is an instrument to defend the way how both the economy and the society are organised.
European Public Goods – a New Concept to Reform the EU Budget?
The EU budget, and in particular the value and structure of its funds, is one of the mostly discussed and controversial issues in the field of the EU financial system. The present day economists, who focus on the EU public finance put forward the necessity to verify spending priorities and redirect them to render pan-European public goods and services. The main challenge for the coming programming period might be then identification of spending items, which should be financed at the pan-European level referred to as European public goods. Further, the value of that spending should be set under the consideration of the EU budget limitations. The notion of European public goods, although variously understood and interpreted in the relevant literature may play a key role for setting the possible directions of the EU budgetary reform. Particularly, it concerns the value of the general budget as well as its spending and revenue structure.
The author examines selected concepts by present day economists regarding the EU funds earmarked for public goods that serve the whole Community. Although decisions on changes in spending priorities will be made by the member countries with an active participation of EU institutions, the issue will be for sure widely analysed in discussions on the future of the EU budgetary system. In particular, the discussions will concern the presently dominating spending on the common agricultural policy and the cohesion policy. The issue deserves special attention and scrutiny as it could be utilised by Poland within the debate on the EU budgetary reform as well as during budgetary negotiations on the new financial perspective for the years 2014-2020.
The Market for Energy Efficiency Services
As a member of the European Union, Poland is obligated to improve its energy efficiency. Better use of energy will contribute to enhanced competitiveness of the national economy, improved energy safety and lower emission of greenhouse gases. One of the key measures leading to energy efficiency improvement, mentioned by the European Union in the Directive 2006/32/EU, is development of the market for energy efficiency services. Such services include mostly consulting, design, engineering and construction services that lead to thermomodernisation of buildings, modernisation of lighting, air-conditioning and cooling systems, replacement of energy consuming equipment with more efficient one or to other improvements in the energy balance of a company or a household.
Services that support energy users in enhancing their energy efficiency and help them save energy are provided by special companies called energy services companies (ESCO), as well as by energy utilities, energy consulting firms and other entities. The demand is created by households and organisations, which use energy, including companies using various forms of primary energy (coal, gas, water, wind, sun, etc.) to generate final energy (e.g. electricity, heat), entities delivering final energy (transmission and distribution companies) and entities consuming final energy (e.g. households).
Polish market for energy efficiency services, even though it has been in place for many years (at least since the beginning of the 90’s), still remains in the early stage of development. Entities providing energy efficiency services are rare and small, and the supply and demand focus on thermomodernisation. Bearing in mind Poland’s obligation to save energy and increase efficiency, there is a strong necessity to implement actions supporting development of the energy efficiency services market.
Changes in the Exchange Rate and the Growth Rate in Poland in 1997-2009
The aim of the article is to examine the impact of changes in the real effective PLN exchange rate onto the Polish GDP from 1997 Q1 to 2009 Q2. The analysis uses the Vector Autoregression Model (VAR).
The results of the analysis revealed a negligible relationship between the changes in the real effective PLN exchange rate and the Polish GDP growth rate dynamics. The results could be explained – in the author’s opinion – by the relatively low openness of the Polish economy measured by share in the total world trade and the low share of foreign trade in the GDP creation. The desk research confirmed as well that from 1997 to 2009 the Polish GDP growth was mainly influenced by the exchange rate demand channel. In the analysed period, the most effective instrument to influence the economic growth in Poland was the central bank monetary policy in the short run and the Government fiscal policy in the long run.
Forwarding Services in German Law and the Partnerships in the International Carriage
The author examines German law on international forwarding agreements. Setting of a uniform system of regulations within the commercial code as well as including in this code the whole range of services usually rendered in the business practice and simultaneously detailed extension of its stipulations within the general terms and conditions related to particular kinds of services facilitated – on the one hand – carrying out of those services, and forwarding services in particular, and – on the other hand – systematisation of their subject matter.
With reference to the Polish legislation, the author concludes that entries of the transport law in many legal acts of different nature and validity range cause that the transport law is less clear than the German law and often difficult in its interpretation. Although the regulations on the forwarding agreement in the Polish legal system are a part of the civil law (Act on civil law), they correspond to the German regulations from the commercial code as far as the subject matter is concerned. Cross-country partnerships in the field of international carriage are easy to set up as the similar regulations (although with some deviations) are applicable both in Poland and in Germany.