Spis treści ZN 23
- Globalizacja działalności innowacyjnej we współczesnej gospodarce światowej
Marzenna A. Weresa
- Globalizacja: zjawisko ogólne czy specyficzne?
- Globalne nierównowagi a problem deficytu bilansu w obrotach bieżących USA
Janusz W. Gołębiowski
- System powiązań Ameryki Łacińskiej z Indiami i Chinami we współczesnej gospodarce światowej
- Teorie komunikowania się w psychologii w aspekcie relacji międzynarodowych
- Rola komunikowania w kulturze organizacyjnej korporacji międzynarodowych
- Zmiany profilu wartości w zarządzaniu zasobami ludzkimi wobec nowych wyzwań w biznesie międzynarodowym
- Uwarunkowania komunikacji marketingowej w biznesie międzynarodowym
Jan W. Wiktor
- Problemy komunikowania w euromarketingu
Michał Jaśniak, Marcin Komor
- Znaczenie efektu kraju pochodzenia dla komunikacji w biznesie międzynarodowym
- Turystyka a małe gospodarki wyspiarskie
- Nowe formy współpracy nauki z gospodarką w priorytetowych obszarach badawczych XXI w.
- Polityka gospodarcza Chin wobec Afryki
- Rynek kredytów hipotecznych w Polsce
Materiały i Opracowania
- Pomoc Narodów Zjednoczonych na rzecz ochrony środowiska w Polsce
Z życia naukowego Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej
- Recenzja książki Pawła Bożyka Międzynarodowe stosunki ekonomiczne
- Edward Grant o tym, skąd się wzięła nauka – recenzja książki Średniowieczne podstawy nauki nowożytnej (w kontekście religijnym, instytucjonalnym oraz intelektualnym)
- Konferencje i seminaria zorganizowane w 2007 r.
- Economic Governance: Changing Phenomenon (the U.S. case)
Zeszyty Naukowe KGS No. 23
Marzenna A. Weresa
Globalisation of Innovations in the Present-Day World Economy
The focus of this article is globalisation of innovations alternatively also termed as technoglobalism. Technoglobalism is a multidimensional phenomenon – the author recalls definitions of this term and analyses its key aspects. The author begins with reasons behind globalisation, in particular with those of the technological nature. The literature identifies four reasons of globalisation that are:
Technical reasons (industrialisation, transport revolution, development of information and telecommunication technologies),
Economic reasons (increase of individual incomes, world trade, global financial markets, markets powers, international competition),
Social reasons (consumption, similarity of consumer preferences, education and skills),
Political reasons (reduction of trade barriers, intellectual property rights, privatisation, creation of trade blocs, technical standards).
From the point of view presented in this article, the most significant are the technological reasons. The industrialisation led to development of mass production, focusing of economic activities and creation of global markets. The increase of the global product attractiveness would not be possible without progress in transportation. The possibility to quickly move commodities from one place to another as well as diminishing barriers in private travel played a vital role in the globalisation process of corporate activities. The third technological component is the development of information and communication technologies (ICT). Inventions such as the Internet, satellite television, and cellular communications facilitated a global coordination of corporate activities as well as improvements in information management. On the other hand, the ICT development has also an effect onto the demand side by making consumer preferences similar to each other on the global scale. It increased the customers’ knowledge of products and trademarks in different countries, as well. What is more, through internet shopping the ICT widened the alternatives to meet customers’ needs.
To conclude, the author states among others that under the global market conditions a vital task of the national innovation policy is efforts to improve the internal R&D base (including primary research) and to strengthen the links between national and foreign innovation systems to facilitate the use of international research results no matter the place the research has been conducted.
Globalisation: a General or a Specific Phenomenon?
The author has chosen and characterised three from among many issues connected with the globalisation process. The first issue is continuity and discontinuity of the globalisation process. The other one is the nature of tensions that appear as result of creation of the present day global economy, and in particular tensions between the global market and the sovereignty of states. The third one refers to the mutual relations between globalisation and different civilizations (cultural systems).
The author concludes that treating globalisation as an economic category it has to be admitted that its distinguishing feature is the so called incomplete continuity. It means that this continuity may be broken due to various reasons – economic, as well as social or military ones. It is difficult to judge, which of those are the decisive ones. At present, we are at a stage, in which the resistance against the complete subordination (according to the Euro-Atlantic pattern) proves some increasing tendencies. It has to be remembered, however, that this resistance has different sources, both in these countries that make the most of globalisation and those that have limited or no advantages of this process. The tensions mentioned above appear in a specific triangle: from the part of countries, which defend sovereignty that tends to marginalise, from the part of societies abruptly differentiating in income (among countries and within the national economies), and finally from clashes between different cultural systems. Without any attempt to valuate the particular powers opposite to globalisation, it has to be emphasised that right now we can only state that it has to do with the mechanism that shuffles the major economic powers as well as with joining the game by countries that originate from different cultural and civilisational systems. Bearing in mind the political ambitions of those countries we can imagine that they will be the starting point of the main resistance – if not only against the globalisation process within its economic layer, then indeed within its political and civilisational shape.
Janusz W. Gołębiowski
Global Imbalances versus the U.S. Deficit on Current Account
The U.S. macroeconomic standing is commonly assessed as a decisively positive one. It is due to the GDP growth that is faster than in the European Union and Japan, high level of the purchasing power per capita, high employment and small jobless rate. The effective monetary policy has allowed keeping low inflation coupled simultaneously with a high economic development. The goods manufactured in the USA, however, have been more frequently losing the direct competition with goods originating from other countries. The exports to United States are not growing at a pace sufficient to equalise the growth pace of the American imports. As a result, the deficit on the current account is increasing as well as the U.S. foreign debt. In the long run, the deficit will have to be reduced by means of savings at best as well as through lowering of governmental spending, tax increases and lowering of customs duties. At present, there is however no political will to apply such means.
The author considers possible exit roads from this crisis, and the following steps in particular:
Cuts in the U.S. budgetary deficit down to at least three percent of the GDP through increased savings and simultaneously cuts in consumption. A successful implementation of such a solution requires in particular stabilisation in the mortgage market and reduction of the household borrowing.
The main countries exporting to the U.S. market have conducted a series of exchange rate increases, including China and Japan up to even forty per cent, euro and British pound up to at least fifteen per cent. Those changes would be an incentive to invest accompanied by a simultaneous increase of the internal demand that has been oversuppressed in recent years.
The European Union and particularly the new members are implementing solutions envisaged to stimulate the internal demand.
The System of Links between Latin America, India and China in the Present-Day Global Economy
The globalisation process that has taken place in different countries and regions over the recent decades indicates that joining the globalisation process may but does not have to contribute to the high economic growth; may but does not have to narrow the distance between the higher developed and the least developed countries; may but does not have to contribute to welfare and improved life quality of majority of people. The share of particular countries in the globalisation process and the globalisation grade of their economies are quite differentiated. The advantages and threats due to integration with the global markets are different, as well. Fairly much depends on the policy adopted to open the economy as well as on the strategy to integrate with the global markets.
The experience from globalisation gathered over recent twenty years shows that there are different models applied to adjust to globalisation; and that the chosen integration strategies bring different results. Having applied an adequate policy, a number of developing countries achieved a high pace of economic growth and quickly caught up with the highly developed countries. Their stance in the global economy increased significantly (for example China and India). Other countries, despite that they had widely opened their economies (Latin American countries), have not been able to achieve a high growth pace. They went through serious financial crises, and their global stance did not improve. Having used huge advantages of globalisation, some countries adopted adequate policies to reduce poverty and improve the life quality of the major parts of their societies. In other countries, however, the poverty ratios have not decreased, but they indeed increased.
In the article, the author is answering the following questions:
What are the experiences from adjustments to globalisation in countries of Latin America, China and India?
What are the effects of the opening of those countries economies, and what advantages have been achieved from the integration with the global economy?
What are the development perspectives of those new economic powers?
What are the reasons behind the increase of economic links between Latin American countries, China and India?
What are the opportunities and challenges for the Latin American countries emerging from the increased stance of China and India in the global economy?
Can the cooperation between Latin American countries and China, and India lower the dependence of this region on the USA?
Communication Theories in Psychology with Reference to International Relationships
Social communications is the basic process that reaches through almost all actions referring to interpersonal, organisational and international activities. It is the coordination of activities that take place between parties, who may be: individuals, groups, nations, states, and supranational organisations. Each particular relation between people engaged in an international activity is based on various forms of communication – we cannot imagine a situation, in which the communication is vacuum hooked. Each participant of this process brings in, willingly or not, his or her ‘cultural programming’, the system of valuations, interpretation and world comprehension lined up to own social experience. Formal and informal communication channels, political, economic, journey or intimate contacts, task and emotional paths, feathery spoken words and firmly marked written words, creation of relations and common decision taking, creation of values and their undermining are examples of universal issues that refer to communication both within a particular culture and in the cross-cultural context.
The author is discussing the communication levels, including interpersonal, intragroup and intergroup communication, recalls definitions of the term communication itself and points out the basic communication barriers, as well as indicates conditions for effective business communication in international contacts. To conclude, the author states that the full understanding of all aspects of cross-cultural communication, its psychological, social, political and economic layers is still very far away. To start with, the mutual prejudice and misunderstanding have to be overpowered, and thus the number of unsuccessful contacts and conflicts will decrease, and the friendly approach among people will be somehow richer and more frequent.
The Role of Communication in the Organizational Culture of an International Corporation
The aim of the article is to show different aspects of communication within an international organisation, starting with rules of communication, through its forms, to end with different cultural dimensions as well as to point out factors critical to effective communication. The author had an occasion to directly participate in creation of communication rules in an international corporation that took place while the company underwent significant changes as well as to watch the implementation results. Upon this experience as well as upon the available literature, the author puts forward two hypotheses for further verification. The first hypothesis is that the communication rules to be effective have to be strictly tightened to the organizational culture of an international corporation as well as take into account the cross-cultural nature of teams working within this organisation. It is the culture that is the most significant factor critical to the effective communication. The second hypothesis is the following one: the longer an international corporation is founding its functions on cross-cultural teams, the more significant the process of ‘cultural unification’ within those teams is. (This process may also result from globalisation.) In such a situation, the codes of the particular national cultures are getting less significant within the context of values imposed by the corporate culture.
To conclude the considerations, the author asks the following questions: is there a chance to alter the behavioural and thinking rules by means of defining culture in an international organisation and to create the own culture that is actually some sort of a cultural mixture? Is it possible to create a communication language that will become a universal corporate language? The author leaves those questions open as the answer requires further research.
Value Profile Changes in the Human Resources Management towards the New Challenges of the International Business
The globalisation process is often associated with increasing similarities and diminishing of differences among participating countries, organisations and individuals. It seems that the unlimited access to information and opinions from all over the world offered by the Internet should result in better understanding of other cultures and facilitate cooperation. Although this phenomenon can be indeed observed, the equally important or even more important challenge in the international business is the diversity. This may be derived from the fact that the speed of information flows and geographical extension of corporate activities have resulted in an increased differentiation of customers, employees, institutions and other factors the company depends on and meets day-by-day. This process is faster than accompanying unification of applied technologies, procedures, organisational solutions, and understanding of cultural differences. In other words, in case of international companies the pace of differentiation of factors taken into the account for the relevant activity is quicker then the pace, in which those factors are becoming uniform, and the pace, in which the organisations learn to understand the international market.
At present, one of the most important challenges in the international business is coping with diversity that may turn to be both a threat and an opportunity. Whether the diversity that surrounds or lies within the organisation will be utilised as an advantage or will become a significant obstacle, depends more and more on the company’s ability to manage people internationally.
Jan W. Wiktor
Conditions for Marketing Communications in the International Business
Marketing communications in international dimension fulfils the corporate goals stipulated in the corporate development strategy. It is relevant to the mode of entry onto the international market, as well as to the strategy of the international market presence and service. The basic assumptions as to the goals, tools and the promotion management process in the international market are the same as those for the domestic market activity. International marketing promotion has, however, its own distinctive features. The marketing communications is a specific dialogue between a company and its surroundings – present and potential purchasers and other stakeholder groups. This dialogue takes place, on the one hand, through information and persuasive activities, and on the other, through a coupling between the recipient and the sender of the promotional communiqué that uses interactive media within the communication channels. In international marketing, this dialogue is particularly complex and difficult – with many elements and conditions of the communication process in a multicultural environment, and legal and economic systems of particular countries. The communication (promotion) system covers a set of activities and tools utilised within a company to pass on the information on the product and/or the company onto the market, to shape the customers’ needs, to awake and direct the demand, and to lower its price elasticity. It is a set of activities aimed to assure the company its steady market presence in the selected target markets.
In this article, the author enlarges on the following issues:
Marketing communications as a social process and its special character in international dimension (a model approach),
Limitations of marketing communications in the international markets,
Culture as an area to dissolve the dilemma: standardisation versus adaptation of promotion in the international business.
Michał Jaśniok i Marcin Komor
Communication Problems in Euromarketing
The authors of the article list communication barriers that are to be overpowered by entrepreneurs, who run business activities in the integrating Europe. Upon readings covering many disciplines, as well as results of empirical research conducted in selected Euromarket countries, the authors present the nature and the range of communication barriers in euromarketing.
To conclude, the authors emphasise that the social integration is becoming the most significant stimulus for corporate development in the Euromarket, in particular for the small and medium-sized companies. The social integration cannot be achieved by means of discussions or political declarations, but through creation of conditions facilitating its development. At present however, the main focus is on the integration in the economic dimension and on the legal regulations referring to this area. The European integration in the cultural dimension is only at its beginnings and is limited to fulfilment of assistance programs in the fields of education, science, and arts. An assumption is made, that before they make out a relatively coherent total, the components of the social system must be stimulated by focused decision centres. Creation of conditions for social and cultural integration and cohesion in the European Union, and hence for the widely understood communication within the framework of euromarketing is without doubts one of the most important investments into future.
Country of Origin Effect and its Significance to International Business Communications
Country of origin (or production) is one of the external features of a product (like price or a brand mark) recognised by customers in particular through the mark ‘made in …’ or assigned (sometimes by mistake) to some brands or products due to its phonetical or visual similarity to names and symbols associated with a particular country. A customer may identify the country of origin through the following elements: the mark ‘made in …’, product name and the manufacturer’s address, brand mark, language of product description, national quality symbols as well as the bar code.
Research on the country-of-origin effect began in the mid sixties of the last century. Over years at least till the mid eighties a very compact definition of this term was used. The term was understood as the influence of the country’s image onto the image of products manufactured as well as brands originating in that particular country. The qualitative changes in the world economy enforced changes in the research methodology as well as an extension of scales describing countries’ images by supplementing them with opinions on their inhabitants, preference analysis, and shopping propensity as well as shopping itself. With reference to the above stated, the author proposes a more complex definition, according to which the country-of-origin effect (or the country-of-production effect) is the influence of the image as well as the attitude to a particular country and its inhabitants onto the image, attitudes and behaviour (shopping and others like advising, disadvising, boycotts, etc.) towards products and brands made in or associated with that particular country.
The author presents the results of own research on the influence of the country of origin onto the customers’ behaviour and shows a variety of tools that may be applied by a country (such as Poland as well) to promote the customers’ ethnocentric behaviour.
Tourism and the Small Island Economies
The growing dependence of the developing countries on the revenue from the incoming foreign tourism resulted in many negative consequences, the effects of which are perceived even now. In the Caribbean, for instance, the outgoing income from tourism exports due to a significant share of foreign capital in the preparation process of a tourism product is estimated at about eighty per cent.
The aim of the article is to present the specifics of small island economies as well as the essential role that the reception tourism plays in those countries or territories. A wide dispersion of the global island-countries (territories) tourism market, differentiated development level of the reception tourism as well as its economic role inclines to scrutinising, at which tourism development stage the particular regions, countries and island territories are. The author presents the economic dangers that arise if the economic development is based solely on proceeds from incoming foreign tourism.
The article preludes further more extended research on the economic influence that the international tourism has on island economies. An effort was made to approach the theories claiming that the international tourism is still a form of economic expansion by highly developed countries in less developed countries and island territories. ‘New’ waves to mitigate the dysfunctions caused by the reception tourism promoted by international organisations, like for example the concept of sustainable development firstly mentioned in 1972, are only an attempt to redirect attention from the main issue, which is the maximal exploitation of the island countries (territories) economies by the highly developed countries. A scientific verification of those theories is very difficult. Although the negative socio-cultural effects have been confirmed by many studies, it is still difficult to provide evidence for the economic dysfunctions. The main reason is the incomplete, fragmented and underestimated or overestimated data on economic effects of the incoming foreign tourism and other unreliable economic data that describes the economies of island countries and territories.
New Forms of Cooperation between Science and Industry in Research Priorities of the XXI Century
The ability to create and absorb innovation is the greatest challenge of the XXI century. There has been a shift in the global economy from industrial to post-industrial Knowledge Based Economy (KBE). According to OECD, Knowledge Based Economy is an economy based on production, diffusion and use of knowledge and information. Knowledge is the most important factor of the economic growth.
There are three main research priorities: INFO (eg. software, information and communication technologies, knowledge management), BIO (eg. biotechnology, genetic engineering, biomedicine, bioenergy) and last but not least TECHNO (eg. semiconductors, smart materials, nanotechnologies). At the current KBE development stage, the split between basic and applied science is diminishing as a result of close links between companies, universities and research centres.
The article presents new forms of cooperation between the science and industry. One of the new forms are the Centres of Excellence that engage into basic and applied science. Centres of Excellence play a vital role in the international research cooperation under the EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). FP7 focuses on increasing European growth and competitiveness acknowledging. FP7 is constructed around four specific programs: cooperation, ideas, people and capacities. Centres of Advanced Technologies are syndicates, in which groups of companies and academics work together to deploy and develop new technologies. Centre of Technology Transfer is sometimes established as a university unit and is responsible for the research results transfer from the university to the industry to commercialise their effects. Science Parks are organisations with a purpose to stimulate and manage the flow of knowledge and technology among universities, research institutes and the industry. The Technology Platforms are established by the European Commission as public-private partnerships led by the industry. They focus on the Hi-tech industries that are strategic for the development and economic growth. The examples of these new forms of collaboration between the science and industry are presented in the article.
Chinese Economic Policy towards Africa
The significance of China in the world economy is steadily increasing. Making use of the domestic economic prosperity, the Chinese transfer higher and higher amounts in form of economic assistance, mainly to the African countries. China, up to recently a major recipient of the development assistance, having at the disposal large cash surpluses is becoming the most important donor for the African continent. The Chinese assistance is willingly accepted by leaders of the African countries, because there are no liabilities required in return. Contrary to Western countries, China does not make its economic assistance dependent on the settlement of political issues (i.e. democratisation and observation of human rights), economic reforms or the environmental protection. The economic assistance has become a specific gate, through which China gains influence in Africa, taking over control of rich fields of natural resources, in particular of crude oil. This policy turns to be very effective and contributes to the maintenance of the high economic growth in China. The trade cooperation of China that is an engine of the world economy with the raw material base that is Africa will surely develop in the next time. The economic assistance issue is, however, its dangerous aspect, by means of which China is trying to gain the approval and confidence of the African continent. This is why the Chinese activities are monitored by other donors gathered in the Development Assistance Committee by the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development that coordinates assistance granted by the most developed OECD countries. Entering a dialogue not only with Africa, but with China in particular, is becoming the most important issue of the economic assistance strategy of earlier donors originating in Europe and the United States. To preserve the influence in Africa, particularly that of the political character, which gradually effects in increased, however still not sufficient, respecting of human rights or creation of foundations of democratic societies in Africa, the DAC donors should focus on cooperation with China. Common actions against poverty that indispensably include backing of democracy and respecting of life will surely contribute to a success measured by the achievement of Millennium Development Targets to 2015.
Mortgage Loan Market in Poland
The author is analysing the present situation as well as the development perspectives in the mortgage loan market that serves financing of housing immovables. The first part presents the legal and the economic definition of a mortgage loan together with characteristics of elements making the loan costs.
The forecasted directions for the development of the mortgage loan offer have been presented in further parts of the article. The Polish market offer is relatively small in comparison to offers in the mostly developed markets, like the American or British one. Further considerations refer to the development of mortgage loans distribution channels that demonstrate on the one hand, an increase in indirect sales, and on the other, an increased role of the remote distribution channels like telephone or the Internet within the direct selling schemes.
The factors shaping the dynamically increasing demand for mortgage loans have been described, and in particular the huge unsaturated housing needs of the society, the increase of construction permits issued observed in recent years that effects in the gradual increase in numbers of finished apartments, demographical factors as well as legal regulations. The present situation in the housing market was characterised as well as the forecasted influence of the economic slowdown in the real property market onto the development of the Polish mortgage loan market. Further, the structure of the Polish mortgage loan market was described (including the list of the market leaders), in which big all-service banks dominate over specialised mortgage banks.
The article concludes with forecasts that indicate an increase in mortgage loans granted in years to come as well as with a summary indicating the relatively optimistic long-term development perspectives of the mortgage loan market in Poland.
United Nations Assistance in the Field of Environmental Protection in Poland
The author describes one of the funds that allows grants earmarked for the environmental protection projects, which is the Global Environmental Fund and the Small Grants Program (GEF/SGP) allocated by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). In 2007 after thirteen years, GEF/SGP completed its activities in Poland. Over this period, 373 projects have been conducted and more than USD 6.5 billion have been invested in Poland. The majority of projects conducted considered protection of wetlands. The degradation of soil was stopped, rare and protected fauna and flora have been preserved.
It is worth to emphasise that GEF was acknowledged by the Polish Government, research institutes, media, the local communities and nongovernmental organisations as one of the most effective among environmental protection programs in Poland in 1994-1998. GEF/SGP was very helpful in fulfilling the concept of the sustainable growth. It also significantly influenced shaping of cooperation at different levels: social groupings (NGOs), municipal authorities and the governmental administration. A very crucial fact is that the natural environment well taken care of may bring tangible financial advantages for the local community in the form of the strengthened economic potential (possibilities to develop agro tourism), as well as improvement of the living conditions of the society (clean air and ecological agriculture).