Spis treści ZN 24
- Światowa Organizacja Handlu a kraje rozwijające się
- Zmiany w polityce państw wobec bezpośrednich inwestycji zagranicznych: od protekcjonizmu do liberalizmu w skali globalnej
- Kontrowersje związane z transakcjami offsetowymi jako uwarunkowaną formą wymiany międzynarodowej
- Perspektywa finansowa Unii Europejskiej ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem nowej perspektywy finansowej 2007–2013
- Efekty funkcjonowania specjalnych stref ekonomicznych w Polsce
Adam A. Ambroziak
- Funkcjonowanie systemu transportu lądowego w branży transportowo-spedycyjnej w Polsce w warunkach integracji europejskiej
- Znaczenie działań marketingowych europejskich portów lotniczych
- Koszty jako czynnik konkurencyjności przedsiębiorstwa hotelowego
- Polityka Unii Europejskiej na rzecz rozwoju obszarów wiejskich, w tym przedsiębiorczości kobiet
- Innowacje w sektorze farmaceutycznym w Polsce
Anna Tyszka, Beata Lubos
Materiały i opracowania
- Karla Poppera metoda analizy sytuacyjnej w naukach społecznych
Z życia naukowego Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej
- Budżet dla Unii Europejskiej po 2013 r. – informacja o konferencji
- Polska i Niemcy po rozszerzeniu Unii Europejskiej – informacja o konferencji
- Competitiveness in the Service Sector – informacja o konferencji
- European Trade Study Group 2008 – informacja o konferencji
- Finansowanie działalności podmiotów zaangażowanych w promocję i kreowanie wizerunku Polski w kraju i za granicą
- Przejawy społecznej odpowiedzialności przedsiębiorstw zorientowanej na kobiety (doświadczenia polskie)
Zeszyty Naukowe KGS No. 24
The World Trade System and the Developing Countries
The full integration of the developing countries into the world trade system is a challenge to the Doha Development Round that has been initiated in 2001. In an effort to reform the world trade system the industrialised countries have to change the virtue of the World Trade Organisation – from the ‘club of rich’ to an international organisation. One of the main obstacles that slow down the pace of Doha Round negotiations is the discontent with the GATT/WTO binding stipulations expressed by the developing countries as well as their claims to being awarded a special status within the world trade system.
The paper examines the option to include the developing countries into the world trade system proposed by the Doha Round. A part of those proposals signifies a comeback to the club approach and the recurring differentiation of countries into reach and poor ones that would in practice rule out the developing countries from the advantages of the free trade. The full integration of the developing countries into the world trade system requires in particular the intensification of efforts to provide higher transparency of the multilateral trade negotiations, including the assessment of the socio-economic consequences of future agreements. The agreements should in particular reflect the fairness rule that will guarantee the developing countries the possibility to make gains on the free trade. The special and differentiated approach to the developing countries will enable this group of countries to adjust to the new WTO regulations, the implementation of which incurs indeed high adjustment costs.
To elaborate new mechanisms indispensable for agreements and rules to positively influence the economic development of the developing countries it is necessary to point out domestic and international legal entities who would participate in the process of monitoring the effects of particular agreements. From this point of view, it seems to be important that the work performed by those selected legal entities on formulating the Trade Policy Review Mechanism is linked to WTO.
Changes in the State Policies towards Foreign Direct Investment: from Protectionism to Liberalism on the Global Scale
The leading thought of the paper has been formulated by the author in the following way: a clear withdrawal from governmental restrictions on foreign investment capital to the advantage of a policy that stimulates foreign direct investment inflows has been widespread on the global scale for over two decades, and is integral to the prevalent process of the economic liberalisation. The author reviews the most important methods applied by different countries of the modern world aimed at influencing the foreign direct investment flows – instruments of a protectionistic nature, and further the tools of a liberal policy to attract foreign direct investors to a particular country.
Within the conclusions, the author observes that in the post-war period a conversion took place from a protectionistic policy to a decisively liberal approach by national governments to foreign direct investment and transnational corporations. In the past, however, the approach of the ‘closed door’ to foreign investors was a matter of a very effective policy. Contrary, today the inflow of foreign direct investment depends above all on strictly economic factors (in particular the development level and the economic potential of a particular country). A state that provides an institutional and legal framework appropriate for the market economy and runs a transparent, reasonable and stable macroeconomic policy attracts foreign direct investment more effectively than by means of only granting special fiscal and financial incentives to foreign investors. The position of the host country governments clearly stronger influences the inflow of foreign direct investment than the relevant policy of a home country. We have to agree with the opinion presented by the UNCTAD experts that the majority of the less developed countries and countries under transformation did not reach up to now a development stage, at which an active governmental support for the foreign investment expansion of domestic companies would be desirable and justified from the economic point of view.
Controversies Related to Offset Transactions as a Form of Countertrade
The rapid growth in the scope and scale of offsets in the last decade is unquestionable. By 1980, the countries engaged in this form of transactions numbered 10, and by 2007 this number was 180. Offset arrangements are most frequently found in the defence-related sectors, and in sales of large-scale and high-priced items such as aircrafts or modern military systems. Offsets are designed to balance the negative effect of large purchases made abroad on the current account of a country. They can take on many forms. Under direct offsets there usually are: co-production, direct subcontracting, concessions, technology transfers, licensed production or investments in defence companies. Indirect offsets usually take a form of: procurements, investments in non-defense companies, trading in commodities or other foreign defence-related projects.
International organisations almost uniformly condemn offsets as a form of international trade. Public statements by the World Bank, IMF, and the WTO indicate that the opposition to them is based on broad considerations of the macroeconomic efficiency. Offsets are viewed as inconsistent with an open free-trading system. WTO sees a danger in the principle of non-discrimination and politicisation of international trade. Officials from OECD warn that such arrangements lead to an increase in trade conflicts as competitive suppliers unwilling to enter offset arrangements are displaced by less competitive suppliers who are willing to do so. All international organisations mentioned above blame offsets for destabilising international trade, bilateralism, and unfavourable change in the structure of trade flows.
The objective of the paper is to discuss some more specific problems related to offsets that are indicated in the literature as their negative consequences:
effects of offset multipliers used as an instrument of the trade policy by LDCs,
change in the structure of relationships in the international arms market,
the rise of international cartels in the airforce market,
distortions in the industrial structure of offset-supplying countries,
security problems of offset arrangements, arms proliferation, and growing pressure on new R&D in this sector.
Analysing the problem from the long-term perspective, the author stresses that despite all its negative consequences this type of countertrade will not disappear from international trade practice mainly due to political reasons, and the need for integrity and protection of military markets.
The EU Financial Perspective for the Years 2007-2013
The first part of the research reviewed in the paper examines the evolution of the EC financial system principles and main expenditure groups within the Financial Perspectives till 2007 that contrary to the general EC budget allowed undertaking of joint investments within European Communities for the period of time longer than one year. In order to more and more effectively accomplish the objective to deepen economic and social cohesion even after the number of members grew the expenditure structure was changed. Other changes as the increased budgetary discipline, the maintenance of expenditure growth controls, in particular of expenses within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the linking up of the contribution levels to the EC budget by the member states with the level of wealth in these states, as well as the improvement of budget procedures proved to be very supportive, too.
The following part of the research reviewed in the paper focused on negotiations on the new Financial Perspective for the years 2007-2013, and further the expense levels, main priorities and amendments implemented within the framework of the IVth interinstitutional agreement, taking into account the EU cohesion policy reform in particular.
The final part portrays the role played by Poland in making the new Perspective the main beneficiary of funds set aside for the years 2007-2013. Further, the author thoroughly describes the funding scale and its purpose that is to assure not only the development of the Polish economy, but also the development of its civil society in particular.
Adam A. Ambroziak
The Effects of the Special Economic Zones Operating in Poland – Geographical Fragmentation and the Local Labour Market
The author portrays the effects of special economic zones operating in Poland. The aim of the analysis was to prove that despite the high fragmentation as well as many misplaced investments or locations with no socio-economic justification the special economic zones have contributed to the decrease in local unemployment.
The author assumes that as the majority of zones had been created in regions plagued by structural unemployment, the attracting of investors was intended to be the main driving force to revitalise those regions. From this point of view, the number of jobs created may be treated as one of the main yardsticks (further to the investment scale) to measure the economic performance of special economic zones.
The effects of special economic zones in Poland have been examined upon data from the Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Finance as well as the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The statistical analysis was based on detailed data on conditions relevant to permits required to run a business within special economic zones, and the scale at which the use was made of those permits, as well as the public assistance granted to particular entrepreneurs upon the Act on special economic zones. Those entrepreneurs who closed down economic activities within zones as of 2006, 31st of December have been eliminated from the data collection.
The impact of special economic zones on the labour market was assessed upon data from the Main Statistical Office electronic database collected at the level of municipalities hosting the zones.
To verify the conclusions made upon statistical data available, a survey was made among entrepreneurs operating in special economic zones. The survey included questionnaires sent by mail to 920 entrepreneurs between August and October, 2007. Twenty one percent of questionnaires had been filled in and returned.
To conclude, the author states that the Poland’s accession to the European Union increased the dynamics of the special economic zones development, and consequently intensified the creation of new jobs. In most cases, the special economic zones indirectly or directly added to the reduction of unemployment, and positively influenced the regional labour market.
The Inland Transport System Performance in the Transport-Forwarding-Logistics Industry in Poland under Conditions of the European Integration
The Poland’s accession to the European Union changed the commercial and legal conditions relevant to business activities in the field of broadly understood transport, forwarding and logistics services. This was seen in the international transport in particular as at the very first EU membership day the annoying customs controls of trucks transporting goods between Poland and the neighbouring EU countries had been lifted, and later the passport controls after the accession to the Schengen zone as of December 2007. The liberalisation of transport services and of the labour flow is the further element integrating the Polish transport and the whole transport, forwarding and logistics industry with the European Union economic system.
An analysis of the transport, forwarding and logistics industry made separately for each of the segments brings to a conclusion that it is mainly transport that is a measure of the advance and quality of economic links between Poland and the European Union member states within the so called internal market. From the very beginning, transport has been not only a subject of integration activities (vide structural harmonisation of transport, liberalisation in the transport market), but also a tool of progress in integration efforts in other fields of the economic and social life. This particular role of transport implies necessity to continuously monitor the performance of the transport system and its development directions within the framework of changing structures and functional links of the transport, forwarding and logistics industry with the rest of the economy (manufacturing industry and commerce) in Poland and in other European Union member countries.
The author examines the performance and development perspectives of the transport system in Poland, which constitutes a structural and functional element of the transport, forwarding and logistics industry in the field of cargo road and railway transport under the conditions of the European integration. The paper presents only the main aspects of the issues under consideration. The first part of the paper explains the term ‘transport, forwarding and logistics industry’, as well as the term ‘transport system’ as a subsystem of logistics and this way as the element of the transport, forwarding and logistics industry. The second part presents the implications of the EU Common Transport Policy for the creation of development conditions of inland transport modes in Poland. The third part constitutes a quantitative and qualitative characterisation of the inland transport system development, and the final part contains an attempt to shortly assess the Polish transport system with respect to the abilities of transport companies to adjust to the increasing competition in the internal EU transport market that undergoes the integration process.
The author’s considerations have been based on the analysis of statistical data (mainly from the Polish Main Statistical Office and Eurostat), the relevant literature, papers and works of various institutions active in the industry, as well as author’s interviews with representatives of transport companies and organisations.
The Significance of Marketing Activities of the European Airports
Till the end of the eighties of the twentieth century the European airports ran their activities under strongly regulated conditions of the air transport services market. The restrictive bilateral agreements on the air communications contained clauses that specified between which airports the links could have been opened, and defined the size and split of the offered transport capacities. Countries that have been parties to those agreements pointed out carriers, who had been allowed to service those links, and approved ticket prices. Carriers had been obliged to conclude trade agreements that significantly limited competition among them. Airports had been treated as utilities operating under the non-profit rule, and enjoyed a monopolistic position. Under such conditions the necessity to undertake marketing activities by the airport management had been limited.
Under the changing market conditions, the airport operators see a need to take on marketing activities aimed at sales intensification, traffic increase, development of air links, and attracting of new customers. The production approach is replaced by the marketing approach, in which the starting point is the market and the customers’ needs – passengers and carriers in particular.
The author examines the marketing activities taken up by the airport operators. He discusses factors that stimulate those activities, and are decisive for the specific nature of services provided by airports and its impact on the marketing activities initiated by the entities that manage the airports. Without a marketing plan and corresponding marketing activities in the even more competitive market the performance of airports would become poorer and poorer.Their weakening position would be exploited by the strong airlines that would force out their terms. Marketing held by an airport is the services marketing that embraces both the institutional marketing and the consumer marketing.
Quality Costs as a Competitiveness Factor of a Hotel Enterprise
The aim of the paper is to introduce a theoretical model of competitiveness of a hotel enterprise, the model that was elaborated upon the relevant literature. In modern markets (not only in the hotel market) the purchasers look for a certain value basket that contains a particular relation of the product features and its costs (understood more broadly than only through the product price). This value, sometimes referred to as utility or utility value, allows evoking among others the concept of the final consumer good that stands not only for expenses on consumer products (services) purchased by a customer, but also for the time spent on purchasing and consumption, as well as customers’ skills and knowledge.
Taking the tourism service takers’ point of view, the author describes the successful competition in the modern tourism markets as the utility value maximization. The logic behind considerations presented in the paper has become a basis to elaborate a model of competitiveness for a hotel enterprise. The nature of some model elements that are difficult to assess (e.g. the notion of quality or the utility value) made the author look for methods to measure the efficiency of a quality system.
The available research results allowed creation of a model explaining the influence of the complex quality (expressed by quality costs) onto the competitiveness of a hotel enterprise (the measure of which is the RPar ratio that expresses the level of return of a single hotel room). From the model assumptions point of view, the shortage of research available in the literature was that the service taker’s satisfaction has only been linked to the quality level obtained, but not to the value for a customer (the aspect of costs borne by a service taker has been omitted). The review of the literature available allowed however identifying model areas confirmed in the existing research results as well as outlining further research fields.
The European Union Policy for the Development in Rural Areas including the Women’s Entrepreneurship
The policy of Development in Rural Areas is one of the priorities of the European Communities. The support to the large-scale, and intensive agriculture has significantly burdened the EU budget and added to production surpluses, but has not liquidated the income differences between countryside and town population. This is why at present the diversification of rural areas and their sustainable development are promoted. The EU policy for rural areas aims at making the countryside not only a place where the food is produced, but in particular a place to live and work. Promoting of economic diversification in rural areas and improvement in quality of living in the countryside is one of the key topics of the new European Union policy for rural areas. Within the policy framework in the period between 2007-2013 activities will be undertaken to promote entrepreneurial attitudes and setting up of the micro service enterprises, the improvement in quality of living in rural areas (services for countryside businesses and population; protection of the heritage of rural areas), as well as trainings connected with preparation and implementation of local development strategies.
The support to women’s entrepreneurship in rural areas has a significant place within this policy. Companies run by women are usually smaller and generate lower turnover, are managed in less formal way, and grow at a lower pace. This is why they are often not treated with due attention by bank advisors and officials with the effect of more difficult access to capital. The women’s entrepreneurship in rural areas – their activities in services, processing, agrotourism, and craftsmanship is a key factor to preserving rural areas. It should be however based on knowledge and market understanding, but not solely on intuition. Therefore, it is necessary to equip businesswomen in the countryside with the adequate support that includes among others training, access to information, setting up of cooperation networks, and facilitations in capital access.
Anna Tyszka, Beata Lubos
Innovations in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Poland
The medical and pharmaceutical sectors are leaders in the economic and innovation development processes. The progress is of value not only for companies who gain on profits, but also for private people, their health and life. The length of life and its style have changed through ages, but the industrialisation has led to the emergence of civilization diseases. This development has boosted the scientific research on more modern medicines and medical technologies to improve life quality and prolongate its length.
From the economic and social point of view, the pharmaceutical industry is one of the most important parts of the Polish economy. Production of pharmaceuticals ranks the second among the most innovative branches in Poland. It is also a matter of interest for the government who adopted the ‘Strategy for pharmaceutical sector till 2008’ in order to improve the situation of pharmaceutical companies. This document shows the directions, in which the sector should develop to become more competitive, improve technologies in use and decrease the negative environmental effects. The main actions involve adjustments to the EU requirements, endorsement for restructuring processes, boosting innovations, increasing the export potential of companies, and strengthening of the management processes.
Pharmaceutical companies are not only relying on the governmental support. In order to cut costs of research on new drugs, develop other research areas, and undertake joint activities the Polish pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies established the Polish Technology Platform for Innovative Medicine. Companies are counting also on the financial support from the EU funds. Lately, the EU has announced a new strategy for the pharmaceutical sector with focus on competitiveness, innovation and environment. Companies may also be granted funds from the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme and the 7th EU Framework Programme. One of the latest developments crucial for the European pharmaceutical sector is the establishment of the Innovative Medicines Initiative by the European Commission and EFPIA in order to conduct joint research on the public-private partnership basis.
Thanks to innovation and research, medicine can do a lot, but not yet everything. Still, we can always go back to the old Mark Twain’s thought – ‘Medical research has done so incredible progress, that now we have practically no single healthy man’.
‘False’ Predatory Prices and the Real Losses
The predatory prices are applied by means of a price lowering followed by a price raise. This operation allows eliminating of competitors and gaining the market advantage. According to the Chicago school this strategy is irrational. On the other part, the school called post-Chicago by utilising the game theory sees a potential to increase profits in the predators’ behaviour. Despite the dispute, in many countries the application of predatory prices is illegal. In the USA many lawsuits took place, in which the American companies accused their Japanese competitors of utilising this unfair strategy when seeking the market monopolisation.
A new argument has been raised in the economic discussion on predatory pricing that urges the senselessness of those accusations: it is not the application of illegal practices, but the cultural differences in approaching of business targets that are the source of the Japanese success and the advantages over the Americans. The present paper delivers a polemic to this opinion.
Financing of Entities that Promote and Create the Poland’s Image at Home and Abroad
The author presents the results of a survey carried out among the regional and national authorities and organisations involved in promotion and creation of the positive attitude to Poland at home and abroad. The main aim of the survey was to examine the sources utilised to finance promotion of Poland both at the regional and national level.
The results of the survey proved that there were a great number of entities involved in the national and regional promotion in Poland, and the most of them were supported by the Polish government. This is why, it is nowadays impossible to point out the only one institution responsible for coordination of the National Marketing Program (NMP) for Poland. At the national level, at least three ministries deal with coordination of the NMP: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and the Ministry of Sport and Tourism. Moreover, there are also several governmental agencies that run the promotion policy on behalf of the Polish government. The situation seems to be better at the regional level as the Marshal Offices are legally obliged to take actions all around the image of the region. To reach this aim they also cooperate with the Regional Tourist Organisations that have been established in Poland in all voivodships. They provide for standardisation of materials promoting the region and jointly organise exhibitions at domestic and foreign fairs.
Promotion of a region or a country is very expensive and requires support from public budgets. The Marshal Offices in Poland spent only from 0.1 to 1.1 per cent of their total expenditure in 2006-2007 for promotional activities. The Polish Government also planned in much lower budgetary means for promotion of Poland than other countries in Europe. The European Union funds for the years 2007-2013 are a great chance for regional authorities and the Polish government to gather additional means for promotional projects. The paper presents prospects for financing of promotional projects from the EU funds.
Manifestation of Corporate Social Responsibility Oriented Towards Women (the Polish Experience)
People look for products that suit their needs, expectations, aspirations, as well as age, gender and the social roles played. Generally, women are considered the main target group of marketing activities undertaken by a company. The most advertisements and products are addressed to women as women are the main shopping decision makers. Moreover, women influence ever more the decisions on purchasing of products that up to recently used to be the men’s domain, and women begin to reach for products that up to recently used to be ‘reserved’ for men.
The author examines how companies that orient their marketing activities on women fit in into their business operations the sensibility to female consumers’ needs and expectations. May this kind of sensibility be tied in a particular case to the fulfilment of the corporate social responsibility idea by a company? In the paper, the author examines the activities of three companies: Unilever (holder of the Dove brand), Avon Cosmetics Polska and Oriflame Poland. The selection was made so, as those companies are oriented to women who are the main beneficiaries of products offered, and because of the social activities undertaken by those companies that are addressed to women. The analysis is based on materials obtained from companies as well as information displayed at their official web pages. It refers mainly to the initiatives held in Poland, although in most cases those activities originate in other countries.
In the closing part of the considerations the author concludes that offering of a qualitatively good product is at present not sufficient to make a market success. More and more companies start activities that should confirm their understanding to the consumers’ needs and expectations. Among the companies scrutinised it is Avon that mostly fulfils the principle of the corporate social responsibility. In this case, the corporate social responsibility is considered a long-term activity undertaken in cooperation with representatives of the local communities to solve the particular social problems that are selected and treated by the company’s management as crucial from the long-term corporate interest point of view and strengthen the company’s reputation.