Spis treści ZN 25
- Czy organizacje międzynarodowe się przeżyły?
- Odpowiedzialność organizacji miedzynarodowych w warunkach globalizacji
- Organizacje międzynarodowe wobec globalnych problemów
- Rola organizacji międzynarodowych w procesach integracyjnych Azji Wschodniej na przykładzie Azjatyckiego Banku Rozwoju
- Działania zmierzające do usprawnienia mechanizmu decyzyjnego w Unii Europejskiej
- Liberalizacja świadczenia usług finansowych a rozwój rynków kapitałowych "nowych" krajów członkowskich UE
- Rynek usług zbiorowego inwestowania w Polsce i wybranych krajach europejskich w latach 2002-2008
- Sieci społeczne i technologiczne - wpływ na proces powstawania innowacji w gospodarce
- Przystąpienie Słowenii, Cypru i Malty do strefy euro - przygotowania i wyzwania
- Ceny drapieżne jako narzędzie rywalizacji
- Fuzje i przejęcia na rynku bankowym w Polsce
Materiały i Opracowania
- Metodologia Nauk Adama Groblera
- Karl Raymund Popper a współczesna metodologia ekonomii
Z życia naukowego Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej
- Wpływ rozszerzenia Unii Europejskiej na wzrost i realną konwergencję nowych krajów członkowskich z Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej - informacja o seminarium
- Zrównowazony rozwój turystyki. Realna koncepcja, iluzja czy chwyt marketingowy? - informacja o konferencji Katedry Turystyki
- O książce Ewy Lisowskiej "Równouprawnienie kobiet i mężczyzn w społeczeństwie"
- Ewolucja podmiotowości funkcjonalnej uniwersalnych organizacji gospodarczych
Zeszyty Naukowe KGS No. 25
- Are International Organisations Out of Date?
- International Organisations towards Global Environmental Protection Problems
- Codification of the International Law as an Answer to Challenges of Times (a Case Study in Codification of International Organisations’ Liability)
- The Role of International Organisations in the Integration Processes in East Asia on the Example of the Asian Development Bank
- Actions to Improve the EU Decision Making Process
- Liberalisation of Financial Services and the Development of Capital Markets in the ‘New’ EU Member States
- The Market for Collective Investment Services in Poland and Selected European Countries in 2002-2008
- Social and Technological Networks – Impacts on Innovation Processes in the Economy
- The Accession of Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta to the Euro Area – Preparations and Challenges
- Predatory Prices as a Competition Tool
- Mergers and Acquisitions in the Polish Banking Market
Materials and Papers
- Adam Grobler’s Scientific Methodology
- Karl Raymund Popper and the modern Methodology of Economics
From the Collegium of World Economy
- Information on the Seminar: The Impact of the EU Extension onto Growth and Real Convergence in the New CEE Member Countries
- Information on the Conference: Equitable Tourism Development – Feasible Concept, Illusion or a Marketing Stunt? organised by the Chair of Tourism
- The review of the book by Ewa Lisowska Równouprawnienie kobiet i mężczyzn w społeczeństwie (Equality of Men and Women in the Society)
- The Evolution of Functional Subjectivity of Universal Economic Organisations
Are International Organisations Out of Date?
The aim of the paper is to present the main global problems faced by the international institutions, how effectively they might be solved and the answer to the question whether the international organisations are out of date. The author explains selected global problems that appear in the international system, presents aims and functions of global organisations, their power and potential as well as some actions aimed at solving global problems and assesses how effective they are. Within conclusions the author observes that the effectiveness of international organisations evokes many objections. There are many reasons for the lacking effectiveness. It is commonly said that the yesterday international organisations are not able to solve the present global problems. Too extended administrative structures, lack of flexibility in decision making or the financial incapability are recalled as examples for imperfections of international organisations. The answer to the question whether the international organisations are out of date is not unanimous. In spite of the efforts undertaken in many fields by international organisations the existing problems have not been lifted yet. The advances made are insignificant in front of the current needs. Contradictions existing in the world have not been mitigated to a satisfactory extent. Does it mean that we have to say farewell to international organisations for good and with no regrets? The answer to the question formulated this way may be as follows: the majority of the global organisations act ineffectively, slowly or make too little, but for a moment we have nothing better in exchange. The existing global organisations that had been established after the World War II will have to take on reforms, and some of them do so at present. Some of them will be forced out by gatherings like G-8 – more flexible, permitting free presentation of positions, facilitating negotiations and allowing for a variety of topics discussed. Even now we can say that the role of G-8 is considerable in the world. All the signs are that G-8 will be soon extended by new members that are China, India, Brazil, Mexico and the South Africa. The G-8 representatives influence the policy of such global institutions like IMF or WTO.
International Organisations towards Global Environmental Protection Problems
The paper presents an analysis of the position represented by three groups of international organisations: governmental, non-governmental and of a mixed character towards global environmental problems. A thesis has been put forward that the emergence of the new development paradigms (balanced development, durable development,sustainable development) is to a vital extent an effect of international organisations mobilising to create efficient instruments of a global character that might serve solving the main environmental protection problems.
Within the conclusions the author states the following:
Over the recent years we can see clear advances in shaping the global awareness. People start to more and more realise both the advantages and dangers resulting from internationalisation of the economic and social life.
A problem in the global dimension emerges as a result of a particular negative matter that spreads all over the world. At the current stage of human civilisation, the global character of problems becomes a nearly constitutive feature. The majority of those problems are causally tied to each other and almost in each case have an egocentric axiological background.
Among many global problems connected to environmental protection two have been exposed in recent years: climate change and adverse changes in biodiversity.
The effectiveness of international organisations’ strategies aimed at lowering or solving the main global environmental problems is strongly diversified, and the pace of positive changes in the environment is rather insufficient. In fact, it has been proven by the consecutive UN reports on the environment. According to the report published on 30 March 2005 in London, the world natural resources are devastated in sixty per cent, and the environmental degradation has not yet been stopped, and advances.
Codification of the International Law as an Answer to Challenges of Times (a Case Study in Codification of International Organisations’ Liability)
The present day challenges, and among them globalisation, influence law, and law influences globalisation. Those interactions became subject of a legal analysis among others in relation to international organisations. The changes in roles and ranks of international organisations are in fact a significant maker and a result of globalisation. The author analyses both the customary law related to international liability as well as the works of the International Law Commission through the perspective of work on international-law liability of states.
Assessing the work of the International Law Commission we can state that it seems to be setting up a complete and uniform regulation that uses legislative techniques proven during works on liability of states.
We can presume that the International Law Commission project will facilitate participation of international organisations in the international trade. It will also be a factor facilitating globalisation, and simultaneously it will help to cut its negative impacts through submitting – to a broader extent than so far – the international trade to legal framework
The Role of International Organisations in the Integration Processes in East Asia on the Example of the Asian Development Bank
In terms of economic development, Asia and Pacific is at present the highest growing region of the world. In spite of the enormous social, economic, political and cultural differentiation of countries, the integration processes taking place in this region are very dynamic and multidimensional. Just now Asia and Pacific countries look for the own path of integration. Although regionalism is not a new issue, the integration processes in the analysed area are only at an early development stage. They also significantly differ from similar processes occurring in Europe or South America. They particularly take place in totally different surroundings and under the big pressure of globalisation processes. It is impossible to directly use known and well analysed patterns, and the perspectives of regional development – the process measured over decades – are a big unknown.
There is neither one strong centre nor a specialised institution that could oversee the coordination of integration processes. Until now this role has been played by the Asian Development Bank. The author widely presents initiatives and actions undertaken by the Asian Development Bank since the beginning of nineties of the XX century.
Actions to Improve the EU Decision Making Process
The well extended and barely transparent system of institutions functioning in the EU is not self-made. It was shaped as the result of the fifty five year activities of the European Communities. Its framework was made by the treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community. The treaty made the High Authority (Haute Autorité) the major body of this grouping. It was equipped with that time unprecedented competencies in decision making that directly bound the member states. The treaty founded also an intergovernmental body – Special Council of Ministers with significantly modest competencies than those given to the supranational High Authority. Also an interparliamentary body – the Common Assembly and a tribunal – European Court of Justice were established
The basic solutions related to the institutional system of the EC/EU currently in force had been however adopted in the Rome Treaties that founded two new Communities: EEC and EAEC (Euratom). The High Authority was replaced by Commissions that simultaneously had been declined most of the supranational powers enjoyed by the Highest Authority. The main entities equipped with decision making competencies directly binding member states became councils and intergovernmental bodies representing member states. Alongside the Treaties founding EEC and EAEC a Convention on certain institutions common to the European Communities had been signed, on the power of which, within the ECSC the Common Assembly (at present the European Parliament) and the European Court of Justice had been established. They became the common bodies for ECSC, EEC and EAEC.
The foundations of the decision making model, which in its basic solutions prevailed until now and are in force in the EU, had been set up in the EEC (EC) Rome Treaty. The carefully shaped decision making system was in fact fully efficient when it regulated cooperation within a narrow grouping – limited to six member states – founders of the Communities. Following extensions of the Communities’ and later EU membership brought as a consequence the significantly stronger than before differentiation of economic and political interests of the member states and posted new tasks ahead the institutions. The author explains them broadly and points out changes that could make the EU decision making process more effective.
Liberalisation of Financial Services and the Development of Capital Markets in the ‘New’ EU Member States
The process of liberalising forms, in which financial services are offered, carried out since sixties in the West European Countries gained on dynamics over the last two decades. The changes in regulations implemented in the EU member states in the nineties and at the beginning of the new century resulted in a situation, in which at least theoretically the full freedom of cross-border financial services on the so called ‘single pass’ basis has been granted.
In the paper, the author analyses the potential influence of regulatory changes on the development of capital markets in countries that acceded to the EU in 2004. In particular, he presents a comparison of costs and benefits for markets in the ‘new’ and ‘old’ member countries.
The starting point for the author is the thesis that the markets in the ‘new’ UE member states benefit from the creation of the common financial market to a relatively smaller extent that the ‘old’ ones. The verification of this thesis is the subject of the author’s following research. Within the conclusions the author states, that benefits that the EU gets from the integration of capital markets (cheaper access to capital for issuers and better possibilities to locate financial surpluses) may be lower than costs, and result in limited development of smaller exchanges in the EU (limitations in development of innovative industries and slowing down of the economic growth due to the lacking or insufficient development of local capital markets). The confirmation of this thesis might mean that the implementation of the new regulatory changes is contradictory to the cohesion policy idea and the development of the innovative branches of the economy (one of the priorities within the Lisbon Strategy).
The Market for Collective Investment Services in Poland and Selected European Countries in 2002-2008
The paper examines the market for collective investment services in Poland and in selected European countries in 2002-2007 and the third quarter of 2008. The basic information on investment funds has been presented, including the virtue of investment funds, kinds and general transactional rules, and further data on the number and net asset value of investment funds in Poland and in selected European countries in the period analysed. The analysis allows a conclusion that in 2002-2007 the number of investment funds as well as their net asset value increased and proves the increased interest in this form of investment in times of economic growth in the financial markets. The increased interest in investment funds may be seen in Poland as well as other European countries. An analysis of data for the third quarter 2008 in comparison to data for 2007 shows how the global financial crisis influenced the particular markets. We can see a relatively smaller outflow of financial means from the well developed financial markets like France and Luxemburg.
The analysis of asset value of funds located in selected European countries delivers a conclusion that the net asset share of investment funds located in these countries had increased. The net asset share of investment funds located in countries with less developed financial markets had fallen, which can be seen on the example of Poland.
Social and Technological Networks – Impacts on Innovation Processes in the Economy
The article analyses the phenomenon of industry-university collaboration in the global economy. The paper is embedded in the open innovation literature, which has been reviewed at the very beginning in order to facilitate an academic level discussion. Special emphasis is put on social and technological networks and its effects on business and economic dynamics.
The British Engineering Doctorate Programme is thoroughly examined in the further part of the article. The major benefits for business and academia and the most typical areas of research are presented there.
Managerial implications and author’s suggestions about possible enhancements of the British model are drawn in the final paragraphs. Special emphasis is put on the degree of model’s applicability outside the UK, especially in Poland.
The Accession of Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta to the Euro Area – Preparations and Challenges
When the new Member States acceded to the European Union (EU) they committed themselves to introduce the single currency and join the euro area. So far only four new EU Member States have adopted the euro. On 1 January 2007 Slovenia launched the euro – the first of the newly acceded Member States to do so. One year later, on 1 January 2008 Cyprus and Malta adopted the common European currency. On 1 January 2009 the euro area was enlarged by Slovakia, leading to an increase in the number of euro area countries to sixteen. The successful paths of Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta towards the adoption of the euro started before their accession to the EU when the countries had to meet Copenhagen criteria and adjust national legislation to acquis communautaire. After joining the EU, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta followed their policies to introduce the euro as soon as possible. In June 2004 the Slovenian tolar entered the ERM II. The Maltese lira and the Cyprus pound were participating in ERM II with effect from 2 May 2005 for the two-year reference period. The exchange rates of these three currencies against the euro were stable during the periods of examination. Apart from the criterion on participation in the exchange-rate mechanism, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta met the remaining convergence criteria on price stability, the government budgetary position and the convergence of long-term interest rates. Moreover, legislation in the analysed countries was compatible with the requirements of the EC Treaty and the ESCB Statute. Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta paid much attention to the practical preparations for introducing the euro. The governments together with national central banks established operational entities which were responsible for drawing masterplans for the euro changeover and ensuring that countries were adequately prepared for the adoption of the single currency. Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta still face some challenges with regard to their smooth participation in the currency union. The countries have to complete the process of real convergence with the euro area. In 2007 GDP per capita in PPP terms of Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta stood at 82.8%, 79.57% and 66.67% of the euro area average, respectively. Therefore Malta has to make more progress in catching up the others. In the examined countries agriculture contributes more to the value added than in the single currency area, and in Slovenia the share of industry is higher than in the euro area. The countries should also improve their ratios of labour productivity per person employed. Therefore integration of Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta into the euro area should be accompanied by structural reforms thus ensuring sustainable economic expansion and resilience to shocks.
Predatory Prices as a Competition Tool
The predatory prices are applied by means of a price lowering followed by a price raise. This operation allows eliminating of competitors and gaining the market advantage. For the Chicago school this strategy is irrational. On the other part, the post-Chicago school by utilising the game theory sees a potential to increase profits in the predators’ behaviour. Despite the dispute, in many countries the application of predatory prices is illegal. In the USA many lawsuits took place, in which the American companies accused their Japanese competitors of utilising this unfair strategy when seeking the market monopolisation.
A new argument has been raised in the economic discussion on predatory pricing that urges the senselessness of those accusations: it is not the application of illegal practices, but the cultural differences in approaching the business targets that are the source of the Japanese success and the advantages over the Americans. The present paper delivers a polemic to this opinion.
Mergers and Acquisitions in the Polish Banking Market
The consolidation processes in the banking industry in Poland that can be seen in numerous commercial bank mergers are among the most important processes that have been reshaping this industry over the recent years.
The aim of the paper is to present the dynamics of mergers and acquisitions among commercial banks operating in Poland over the recent two decades and to point out the motives of institutes engaged in M&A transactions as well as advantages shared by banks that take part in consolidation processes. The developments in Poland have been presented against the background of processes taking place in the EU countries. In particular, a thesis has been confirmed that the developments in Poland to a vital extent reflect consolidation processes among the foreign financial institutes. Further, M&A perspectives for the coming years have been drafted.
Summing up, the author indicates that over the recent two decades there have been over fifty mergers or acquisitions in the banking industry. The number might be assessed as significant in particular if to take a relatively small size of the Polish banking industry in comparison to many EU countries and the relatively short time experience of market economy system in Poland. After the period between 1999-2002 that was characterised by the most intensive consolidation processes, the number of M&As executed has fallen. The process has not been however completed yet. We cannot exclude that in the coming future some new mergers and acquisitions will take place. Typical for the consolidation of the banking industry is that M&A transactions take place in waves: after a couple of years of a dynamic increase in number and value of deals set there comes a noteworthy fall. By the end of 2008 some signs have been seen that we will deal with the next wave in the course of 2009. The crisis in the world financial markets may cause that foreign banks finding themselves in a particularly difficult position will be keen to sell subsidiaries operating in Poland.
The Evolution of Functional Subjectivity of Universal Economic Organisations
The author examines to which extent the political decisions on institutionalisation of international economic relations (according to the concept put forward by Mitrany) are secondary to the practice of those relations. The first part presents the evolution of the Economic and Financial Organisation, and the second part – the process of setting up the World Bank Group. The last part examines processes of institutional changes that led to reshaping of the temporary GATT mechanism of 1947 into the international organisation WTO.
Within the conclusions the author underlines that between the World Wars the Economic and Financial Organisation as the first international organisation launched a fight to fully emancipate from the states’ control. The need of cooperation forced the organisation members to limit restrictions in this field and facilitated some institutional changes. From after the World War II the hope to avoid the next Great Depression and world war was tied to universal economic organisations in line with the neofunctional concept of carrying over the loyalty onto the cooperation centres.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development launched its activities in order to reconstruct the economy devastated by war, and over time began to assist developing countries, gradually reshaping and extending its structure by further organisations in line with its autonomic goals. GATT – a temporary assumed mechanism to regulate international goods turnover – had been changed into an international organisation to answer to the needs of the international community. The cases analysed are – in the author’s opinion – a promising example of the well utilised neofunctional integration potential.