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 zeszyty naukowe kolegium gospodarki światowej nr 30

 

Spis treści ZN 30

  1. Strefa euro i jej państwa członkowskie w światowej gospodarce i handlu
    Elżbieta Czarny, Katarzyna Śledziewska
  2. Doświadczenia wybranych krajów strefy euro w obszarze finansów publicznych i wnioski dla Polski
    Rafał Wielądek
  3. Patterns of trade in time of crisis – integration of Polish services market within the European Union
    Alina Szypulewska-Porczyńska
  4. Offshoring we współczesnej gospodarce światowej
    Eliza Chilimoniuk-Przeździecka
  5. Wdrażanie Europejskiego Funduszu Powrotów Imigrantów jako narzędzia walki z nielegalną migracją w Unii Europejskiej – przykład Polski
    Monika Cieślak-Kondraszuk
  6. Międzynarodowa konkurencja podatkowa
    Małgorzata Szafoni
  7. Anglo-Saxon Capitalism
    Mariusz Próchniak
  8. Herd behaviour in organizations: the case of entering an investment project
    Adam Karbowski
  9. Struktura władzy w firmach rodzinnych
    Jacek Miroński, Jacek Lipiec
    Materiały i opracowania
  10. Sektor finansowy w Polsce wobec kryzysu
    Paweł Kulpaka
  11. A textbook of economic methodology from Amsterdam - on Marcel Boumans and John B. Davis’ book Economic Methodology. Understanding Economics as a Science
    Bogusław Czarny
    Z życia naukowego Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej
  12. O euro – informacja o seminarium
  13. Wpływ przygotowań i organizacji Mistrzostw Europy w Piłce Nożnej UEFA EURO 2012 na polską gospodarkę – informacja o seminarium
  14. Konkurencyjność Unii Europejskiej – informacja o konferencji
    Spoza Kolegium
  15. Entrepreneurship as an element of academic education – international experiences and lessons for Poland
    Agnieszka Kurczewska
  16. Globalization and its impact on the forms of international economic governance
    Pavel Neumann

Zeszyty Naukowe KGS No. 30

CONTENTS

  1. Euro area and its member states on the background of the world economy and trade
    Elżbieta Czarny, Katarzyna Śledziewska
  2. The experience of the selected member states of the euro area in the field of public finance and conclusions for Poland
    Rafał Wielądek
  3. Patterns of trade in time of crisis – integration of Polish services market within the European Union
    Alina Szypulewska-Porczyńska
  4. Offshoring in the contemporary world economy
    Eliza Chilimoniuk-Przeździecka
  5. Implementation of the European Return Fund as the tool of combating illegal migration in the European Union – the example of Poland
    Monika Cieślak-Kondraszuk
  6. International tax competition
    Małgorzata Szafoni
  7. Anglo-Saxon Capitalism
    Mariusz Próchniak
  8. Herd behaviour in organizations: the case of entering an investment project
    Adam Karbowski
  9. Power structure in family firms
    Jacek Miroński, Jacek Lipiec
    Materials and Papers
    Financial sector in Poland and crisis
    Paweł Kulpaka
  10. A textbook of economic methodology from Amsterdam - on Marcel Boumans and John B. Davis’ book Economic Methodology. Understanding Economics as a Science
    Bogusław Czarny
    From the Collegium of World Economy
  11. About euro – information about the seminar
  12. The impact of preparations and organization of the European Football Championships UEFA EURO 2012 on the Polish economy – information about the seminar
  13. Competitiveness of the European Union – information about the conference
    Guests Articles
    Entrepreneurship as an element of academic education – international experiences and lessons for Poland
    Agnieszka Kurczewska
  14. Globalization and its impact on the forms of international economic governance
    Pavel Neumann

SUMMARIES

Elżbieta Czarny, Katarzyna Śledziewska
Euro area and its member states on the background of the world economy and trade

The Authors analyse statistical data in order to answer the question concerning development of trade in the euro area and its member states before and after introduction of common currency. Has the trade of its member states during the euro area existence confirmed the theoreticians’ assumptions (e.g. Fraenkel and Rose’s, 1997) concerning its intensification after establishing monetary union?

The analysis includes the volume of the GDP export in the euro area countries and world economy. Also analysed are changes in economic potential and export of the euro area countries directly before establishing the area and during its existence. The analysis covers the years 1995–2009. Choosing such time range allowed including the period preceding establishment of the euro area in the surveys and taking into account the effect of the GATT Uruguay Round finished in 1995. The years 2008-2009 fall on the economic crisis; the data from this period allow drawing conclusion concerning the level of resistance of the euro area economy to a strong, negative demand shock. The data used in the analysis come from the UNCTAD database.

In conclusions, the Authors stress that: firstly, the importance of the euro area countries in the world economy, including international trade, has been decreasing. Secondly, the trade between the countries of the area does not increase as fast as between the other countries in the world. Thirdly, statistical data do not confirm that the growth in export inside the euro area was higher than a growth in export of the countries that do not belong to the euro area. Therefore, the analysis on statistical data does not let confirm unambiguously the thesis assuming a positive impact of the monetary union on export within the area it is executed. Moreover, it turns out that because of the crisis, the trade relations within the euro area suffered to a greater extent than trade exchange between the other countries in the world.

Rafał Wielądek
The experience of the selected member states of the euro area in the field of public finance and conclusions for Poland

In January 2011, 12 years had passed since the launch of the Third Stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in the European Union (EU). The EU member states that adopted the common European currency in 1999 have cumulated a significant experience in the field of application of economic policies under the framework of the common monetary policy. This experience is especially relevant in the case of fiscal policy, which remains the only national adjustment policy available under the EMU. However, since 1999 the national fiscal policies of the member states of the euro area are to bind a specific framework created by the stipulations of the Treaty of Maastricht and Stability and Growth Pact. This framework is created by the rules on maximum limits of deficit and indebtedness of the public sector, as well as by the principles of close coordination of the economic policies under broad economic policy guidelines (BEPG). Thus, the experience of the EMU member states under these specific circumstances may stand for a valuable lesson for Poland as a country that faces the perspective of joining the euro area. Upon this experience, Polish policymakers have a unique chance to analyse the fiscal policy choices under the EMU framework that are worth to be considered, and which of them should be avoided in order to succeed in the euro area.

In the article, the Author sketches the fiscal policy framework of the EMU and then, in the light of it, analyses the experience of the selected countries. The chosen countries are Germany, Portugal, and Finland. The analysis focuses on developments in public finance, especially in terms of cyclically adjusted structural balances, but also on fiscal stance and fiscal adjustment conducted. Then, in line with the research method introduced, the situation of Poland is examined, which builds a context for closing conclusions drawn from the fiscal experience of the EMU member states.

Eliza Chilimoniuk-Przeździecka
Offshoring in the contemporary world economy

Deteriorating economic conditions during the crisis for many companies were the reason for searching for profitability. Offshoring has become the chance for survival. Offshoring is not only the form of specialization of production guaranteeing the most efficient possible use of factors of production, but also the specialization of individual processes such as accounting, human resources management, customer service, call centre, etc.

The paper presents various methods of estimating the intensity of offshoring in a given country or industry, and assessing the attractiveness of offshoring locations. In addition to the presentation of these methods, the assessment of the attractiveness of Poland and countries of our region of Europe in different rankings will be carried out. The position of Poland as the market that attracts foreign investors is also reviewed. 

Monika Cieślak-Kondraszuk
Implementation of the European Return Fund as the tool for combating illegal migration in the European Union – the example of Poland

The growing wave of illegal immigrants coming to the European Union was the main reason why a unique approach towards the issue of illegal migration was established. Countries in the West of Europe, as being on a higher level of economic development, faced the problem first. The founding Treaties of European Union did not regulate the status of the third countries’ citizens. Only as a result of adoption of the Schengen Agreement (1985) and the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement (1990), the first regulations concerning the common policy on migration in the EU emerged. Next, the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) and the Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) introduced additional rules in the area of migration policy focused on the creation of an area of freedom, security and justice, within which framework the issues of visa, asylum and migration were supposed to be normalized. In 2002 a communication was issued on integrated management of the EU external borders and in 2004 the European Council adopted the Hague Programme aiming at the strengthening of the area of freedom, security and justice. In 2005 the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders (FRONTEX) was established. The Hague Programme laid the foundations for the creation of the European Return Fund and, in order to determine an effective return policy as an integral part of a well- -managed migration policy, the Directive 2008/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals came into force.

On that base the European Return Fund, as part of the General Programme ‘Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows’ was created. The general objective of the Fund shall be to support the efforts made by the Member States to improve the management of return in all its dimensions through the use of the concept of integrated management and by providing for joint actions to be implemented by Member States or national actions that pursue Community objectives under the principle of solidarity, taking account of Community legislation in this field and in full compliance with fundamental rights (Decision No 575/2007/EC of 23 May 2007 establishing the European Return Fund for the period 2008 to 2013, article 2(1)).

Under the European Return Fund the following actions are implemented:

  1. Support for the development of a strategic approach to return management by Member States
  2. Support for the cooperation between Member States in return management
  3. Support for specific innovative (inter)national tools for return management
  4. Support for Community standards and best practices on return management

Małgorzata Szafoni
International tax competition

The analysis on the available literature and discussion carried out in media indicate that unambiguous assessment whether the international tax competition is a positive or negative phenomenon or whether it should be reduced or encouraged is rather difficult. Certainly, we may find the arguments claiming international tax competition as a natural phenomenon in free economy and justified from the economic point of view. Similarly, we may point out the arguments indicating justification of reduction or stimulation of its effects, particularly concerning the so-called tax paradises.

Thorough assessment of the phenomenon is not possible without a deepened analysis on the reasons of the international tax competition phenomenon, including harmful competition (tax paradises), as well as their effects and advantages to the economies of particular countries and the world economy.

Effective controlling of transactions and preventing taking advantage of tax paradises by taxpayers requires coordination of legislative actions at the international level. Relatively low effectiveness of legal instruments, which were introduced by particular countries in order to minimise the losses in public finances caused by the use of tax havens, initiated active cooperation at the international level, particularly within the OECD and the European Union, which objective is harmonization of various actions carried out within this area.

The main driving force of accelerating tax competition is freedom of conducting economic activity related to the development in the sphere of   telecommunication and information technology. As the effect, taxpayers take increasingly more advantage of free capital flows, which is the reason that the differences between tax systems gain significance. Moreover, just as any other form of competition, also tax competition influences rationality of decisions and more effective functioning of economies. Therefore, we cannot ambiguously assume that tax competition should always be reduced, as the actual establishing of stiff mechanisms of its controlling at the international level is doubtful. In addition, it is not certain whether it would be in the interest of both particular countries and the world economy.

Jacek Miroński, Jacek Lipiec
Power structure in family firms

Concepts such as power, politics, and influence are described in the literature about family firms in a simplistic and one-dimensional way. Especially in the empirical studies, power is measured mainly through family ownership (majority shares versus minority shares) and family participation in the management bodies (top management, board of directors). From the point of view of the theory of power in organizations such approach limits our understanding of how such firms function. When analysing family businesses the knowledge about power of the family is critical because the family and its members have substantial influence over the firm’s development. On the other hand, a closer look into the power structure in family firms leads to the conclusion that the real influence of the family may be smaller than assumed so far. In addition, the process of transforming power into the real influence is quite complicated. The family impact depends on many factors such as sources of power, solidarity inside the family or ability to use different influential tactics. Besides the above, there are a few other, important conclusions emerging for the article. First, one should not always treat family as a separate and homogenous power actor. In some issues family members speak in one voice, in other issues they have different opinions. Second, one cannot limit the analysis of power to the rationally defined interests. Things like loyalty, emotional attachment but also personal conflicts play an important role in exercising power by families in their businesses. Finally, when studying the power position of the family it is necessary to take a dynamic approach, because due to the development of the firm and the family itself, this position changes dramatically.